Impressionism Timeline: November Auctions
1856

James McNeill Whistler

The American painter James McNeill Whistler arrives in Paris in 1856 and establishes connections with French modern artists working in Paris, including Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. In 1874, Degas would invite Whistler to join a group of avant-garde painters later known as the Impressionists, but Whistler decided to exhibit his work independently.

Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER (1834-1903)
Whistler Smoking
1856-1860
Estimate $400,000 - $600,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1862

The Origins of Impressionism

Claude Monet, Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Frédéric Bazille meet in Paris in the early 1860s. These young artists will go on to become known as Impressionists—painters dedicated to capturing the spectacles of modern life, as well as the atmospheric effects of color and light on canvas.

L: Pierre-Auguste Renoir, La Grenouillère, 1869. Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
R: Claude Monet, La Grenouillère, 1869. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
1863

Edouard Manet

Edouard Manet, friend to Impressionist Edgar Degas and future brother-in-law of Berthe Morisot, submits his radically modern painting Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe to the annual Paris Salon; his work is rejected and exhibited instead at the Salon des Refusés. Despite this embarrassment, Manet will continue to submit his work to the Salon, declining invitations to join the Impressionist exhibition

Edouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe, 1862-1863. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
1870

The Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War begins, leading to the collapse of the Second Empire and the rise of the Third Republic in France. Monet and Pissarro flee to England. The other future founding members of Impressionism— Degas, Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Renoir, and Sisley—remain in Paris. Bazille, who dreamed of organizing an independent exhibition, is killed in battle.

L: Frédéric Bazille, Studio in Rue de La Condamine, 1870. Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Bridgeman Images.
R: Ruins from the Franco-Prussian War, 1871. Photo: © Albert Harlingue / Roger-Viollet.
1872

Painting en plein air

In the years that follow the Franco-Prussian war, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley are increasingly drawn to painting in nature, frequently setting up their easels outdoors in order to capture their spontaneous impressions of the landscape in Paris and beyond. The artists also experiment with a new style of painting: lighter, brighter colors applied with looser brushstrokes.

L:Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
La Seine à Argenteuil
1872
Estimate $2,000,000 - $3,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
La route de Rouen, les hauteurs de l'Hautil, Pontoise
1872
Estimate $600,000 - $900,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1872

Paul Durand-Ruel

Paul Durand-Ruel, the French art dealer and major champion of the Impressionists, exhibits the work of Manet, Monet and others at his gallery in London.

Paul Durand-Ruel, 1910, Photo: Sheldon Marshall.
1874

Impressionism is born

The First Impressionist Exhibition is staged at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar. There, Monet exhibits his iconic landscape painting Impression, soleil levant. Art critic Louis Leroy dismisses Monet’s work as a mere impression, coining the name of the artistic movement: Impressionism.

L: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Le bassin d'Argenteuil
1874
Estimate $15,000,000 - $25,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Madame Henriot
1874
Estimate $700,000 - $1,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1875

Monet in Argenteuil

Monet moves with his young family to the Parisian suburb of Argenteuil in 1871. He draws constant inspiration from the natural landscape there, as well as his own cultivated flower garden.

Property from a Distinguished Private Collection
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Au jardin, la famille de l’artiste
1875
Estimate $12,000,000 - $18,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1876

The Second Impressionist Exhibition

Galerie Durand-Ruel et Cie in Paris hosts the Second Impressionist Exhibition. Gustave Caillebotte exhibits his work—including Jeune homme à sa fenêtre—for the first time, alongside Degas, Morisot, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley.

Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894)
Jeune homme à sa fenêtre
1876
Estimate on request
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1877

The Third Impressionist Exhibition

Caillebotte organizes the Third Impressionist Exhibition in a large private apartment in Paris. The last gallery of the exhibition is filled with pastels and paintings by Degas, including several dedicated to the subject of ballerinas practicing and performing at the Opéra.

Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Danseuse sur une pointe
1877
Estimate $500,000 - $800,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1879

The Fourth Impressionist Exhibition

Cézanne, Morisot, Renoir and Sisley all decline to show their work at the Fourth Impressionist Exhibition; some of them submit their work to the Salon instead. Mary Cassatt befriends Edgar Degas and becomes the first American artist to exhibit her work with the Impressionists.

Property of an Important Collector
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Chanteuse de café concert
1879
Estimate $1,500,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
La route à Wargemont
1879
Estimate $3,000,000 - $5,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1880

The Fifth Impressionist Exhibition

Cézanne, Renoir, Sisley—and now Monet—all opt out of the Fifth Impressionist Exhibition. Renoir continues to submit his paintings to the Salon, while Cézanne has retreated from Paris to his native Provence. Critic Henry Harvard declares “Let us acknowledge that Impressionism is dying…the former leaders are deserting”.

Property of an Important Collector
Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
Quatre pommes
1880-1881
Estimate $2,500,000 - $3,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1881

The Sixth Impressionist Exhibition

Of the original founding members of the Impressionist group, only Degas, Morisot and Pissarro still participate in the Sixth Impressionist Exhibition. Degas’s wax sculpture of a fourteen-year-old causes controversy, while Morisot’s paintings earn the praise of Journalist Gustave Geoffroy: “No one represents Impressionism with more refined talent or with more authority than Morisot” (La Justice, 19 April 1881).

L: Berthe Morisot, La Toilette, 1875-1880. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago.
R: Edgar Degas, Petite danseuse de quatorze ans, statuette en cire, circa 1881. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Photo: National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

1882

The Seventh Impressionist Exhibition

Degas and Cassatt withdraw from the Seventh Impressionist Exhibition. Monet, Renoir and Sisley return to the group. Renoir submits Le Déjeuner des canotiers, which the poet Armand Silvestre describes as “one of the most beautiful pieces that this insurrectionist art by Independent artists has produced” (La Vie Moderne, 11 March 1882).

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Déjeuner des canotiers, 1880-1881. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. Photo: Album / Art Resource, NY.
1883

Paul Cézanne

Cézanne radicalizes the modern landscape with his series of canvases painted at l’Estaque, a small fishing village on the Mediterranean.

Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
L'Estaque aux toits rouges
1883-1885
Estimate $35,000,000 - $55,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1883

Edouard Manet

Manet dies in Paris at the age of 51. Degas posthumously praises the so-called Father of Modernism: “He was greater than we thought”

Edouard Manet, Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère, 1882. Courtauld Gallery, The Samuel Courtauld Trust, London.
1885

Edgar Degas

In the mid-1880s, Degas begins a controversial series of pastel works on paper depicting female nudes, casually reclining or emerging from the bath.

L: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Après le bain
1883
Estimate $1,500,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Femme lisant
1883-1885
Estimate $1,800,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1886

The Eighth Impressionist Exhibition

After a four-year hiatus, several of the original members of the group reunite for the Eighth (and final) Impressionist Exhibition. Georges Seurat contributes his large-scale Pointillist painting, Un Dimanche d’été à l’Ile de La Grande Jatte, signaling the triumph of Neo-Impressionism.

The National Academy of Design in New York also hosts a major exhibition dedicated to the art of Impressionists, including Caillebotte’s Jeune homme à sa fenêtre of 1876.

L: Georges Seurat, Un Dimanche d’été à l’Ile de La Grande Jatte, 1884-1886. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago.

R: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Jeune fille à la rose
1886
Estimate $3,000,000 - $5,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1888

Vincent van Gogh

The Dutch painters Vincent van Gogh arrives in Paris in 1886, where he meets the Neo-Impressionists Georges Seurat and Paul Gauguin. In 1888, Van Gogh leaves Paris for Arles in the South of France, where he will spend the final two years of his life.

Vincent van Gogh
Meules de blé
1888
Estimate $20,000,000 - $30,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1888

Claude Monet

Monet travels extensively throughout the 1880s in pursuit of diverse landscapes. In 1888, he visits to the south of France and paints La Méditerranée, capturing the luminosity of the Côte d’Azur with rich, impastoed color.

Property from the Estate of Ann Eldredge Middelthon
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
La Méditerranée
1888
Estimate $4,000,000 - $6,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1889

The Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower is unveiled for the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris.

Georges Seurat, La Tour Eiffel, circa 1889. Fine Art Museums of San Francisco.
1890

Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh’s artistic genius flourishes, culminating in a boldly colored series of figurative and landscape paintings. After suffering a nervous breakdown 1889, Van Gogh dies of a self-inflicted gunshot wound on 29 July.

L: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Cabanes de bois parmi les oliviers et cyprès
1889
Estimate on request
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Jeune homme au bleuet
1890
Estimate $5,000,000 - $7,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1892

Edgar Degas

In the final decades of his life, Degas focuses on drawing colorful pastel works on paper and modeling sculptures in wax and clay; these late, experimental works are among his greatest masterpieces.

L: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1817)
La Coiffure (La Toilette)
1892-1895
Estimate $5,000,000 - $7,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Property of an Important Collector
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Repasseuse
1898-1900
Estimate $1,000,000 - $1,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1894

Gustave Caillebotte

Caillebotte dies suddenly at age 46. His personal collection, which included dozens of Impressionist paintings by Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley, is bequeathed to the French state. Nearly half of the collection, including several masterpieces by Caillebotte, are rejected by the state and dispersed elsewhere.

Gustave Caillebotte, Rue de Paris: Temps de pluie, 1877. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago / Art Resource, NY.
1904

Paul Cézanne

The avant-garde Salon d’Automne in Paris dedicates a gallery to the work of Cézanne.

Maurice Denis, Homage à Cézanne, 1900. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Photo: Bridgeman Images.
1910

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Renoir and his family move to an estate known as Les Collettes in Cagnes-sur-Mer in 1907. The lush, floral landscape is a fertile source of inspiration for his later work.

L: Property from the Collection of William Rosenwald
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Anémones au vase de Delft
1910
Estimate $600,000-800,000
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
R: Property from a Private West Coast Collection
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Melon et tomates
1903
Estimate $600,000 - $800,000
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
1912

Claude Monet

Monet begins painting the Nymphéas series, depicting the waterlilies in his garden at Giverny, in 1897. He returns to the subject again in 1903, it preoccupies him until his death in 1926.

L: Jacques-Ernest Bulloz, Claude Monet in front of his water lily pond in Giverny, 1905.
R: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Nymphéas (fragment)
1912
Estimate $700,000 - $1,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
Impressionism Timeline: November Auctions
1856

James McNeill Whistler

The American painter James McNeill Whistler arrives in Paris in 1856 and establishes connections with French modern artists working in Paris, including Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. In 1874, Degas would invite Whistler to join a group of avant-garde painters later known as the Impressionists, but Whistler decided to exhibit his work independently.

Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER (1834-1903)
Whistler Smoking
1856-1860
Estimate $400,000 - $600,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
This is some text inside of a div block.

What’s a Rich Text element?

The rich text element allows you to create and format headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, images, and video all in one place instead of having to add and format them individually. Just double-click and easily create content.

Static and dynamic content editing

A rich text element can be used with static or dynamic content. For static content, just drop it into any page and begin editing. For dynamic content, add a rich text field to any collection and then connect a rich text element to that field in the settings panel. Voila!

How to customize formatting for each rich text

Headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, figures, images, and figure captions can all be styled after a class is added to the rich text element using the "When inside of" nested selector system.

What’s a Rich Text element?

The rich text element allows you to create and format headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, images, and video all in one place instead of having to add and format them individually. Just double-click and easily create content.

Static and dynamic content editing

A rich text element can be used with static or dynamic content. For static content, just drop it into any page and begin editing. For dynamic content, add a rich text field to any collection and then connect a rich text element to that field in the settings panel. Voila!

How to customize formatting for each rich text

Headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, figures, images, and figure captions can all be styled after a class is added to the rich text element using the "When inside of" nested selector system.

This is some text inside of a div block.
This is some text inside of a div block.

What’s a Rich Text element?

The rich text element allows you to create and format headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, images, and video all in one place instead of having to add and format them individually. Just double-click and easily create content.

Static and dynamic content editing

A rich text element can be used with static or dynamic content. For static content, just drop it into any page and begin editing. For dynamic content, add a rich text field to any collection and then connect a rich text element to that field in the settings panel. Voila!

How to customize formatting for each rich text

Headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, figures, images, and figure captions can all be styled after a class is added to the rich text element using the "When inside of" nested selector system.

This is some text inside of a div block.
This is some text inside of a div block.

What’s a Rich Text element?

The rich text element allows you to create and format headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, images, and video all in one place instead of having to add and format them individually. Just double-click and easily create content.

Static and dynamic content editing

A rich text element can be used with static or dynamic content. For static content, just drop it into any page and begin editing. For dynamic content, add a rich text field to any collection and then connect a rich text element to that field in the settings panel. Voila!

How to customize formatting for each rich text

Headings, paragraphs, blockquotes, figures, images, and figure captions can all be styled after a class is added to the rich text element using the "When inside of" nested selector system.

This is some text inside of a div block.
This is some text inside of a div block.
1856

James McNeill Whistler

The American painter James McNeill Whistler arrives in Paris in 1856 and establishes connections with French modern artists working in Paris, including Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. In 1874, Degas would invite Whistler to join a group of avant-garde painters later known as the Impressionists, but Whistler decided to exhibit his work independently.

Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER (1834-1903)
Whistler Smoking
1856-1860
Estimate $400,000 - $600,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1862

The Origins of Impressionism

Claude Monet, Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Frédéric Bazille meet in Paris in the early 1860s. These young artists will go on to become known as Impressionists—painters dedicated to capturing the spectacles of modern life, as well as the atmospheric effects of color and light on canvas.

L: Pierre-Auguste Renoir, La Grenouillère, 1869. Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
R: Claude Monet, La Grenouillère, 1869. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
1863

Edouard Manet

Edouard Manet, friend to Impressionist Edgar Degas and future brother-in-law of Berthe Morisot, submits his radically modern painting Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe to the annual Paris Salon; his work is rejected and exhibited instead at the Salon des Refusés. Despite this embarrassment, Manet will continue to submit his work to the Salon, declining invitations to join the Impressionist exhibition

Edouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe, 1862-1863. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
1870

The Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War begins, leading to the collapse of the Second Empire and the rise of the Third Republic in France. Monet and Pissarro flee to England. The other future founding members of Impressionism— Degas, Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Renoir, and Sisley—remain in Paris. Bazille, who dreamed of organizing an independent exhibition, is killed in battle.

L: Frédéric Bazille, Studio in Rue de La Condamine, 1870. Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Bridgeman Images.
R: Ruins from the Franco-Prussian War, 1871. Photo: © Albert Harlingue / Roger-Viollet.
1872

Painting en plein air

In the years that follow the Franco-Prussian war, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley are increasingly drawn to painting in nature, frequently setting up their easels outdoors in order to capture their spontaneous impressions of the landscape in Paris and beyond. The artists also experiment with a new style of painting: lighter, brighter colors applied with looser brushstrokes.

L:Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
La Seine à Argenteuil
1872
Estimate $2,000,000 - $3,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
La route de Rouen, les hauteurs de l'Hautil, Pontoise
1872
Estimate $600,000 - $900,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1872

Paul Durand-Ruel

Paul Durand-Ruel, the French art dealer and major champion of the Impressionists, exhibits the work of Manet, Monet and others at his gallery in London.

Paul Durand-Ruel, 1910, Photo: Sheldon Marshall.
1874

Impressionism is born

The First Impressionist Exhibition is staged at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar. There, Monet exhibits his iconic landscape painting Impression, soleil levant. Art critic Louis Leroy dismisses Monet’s work as a mere impression, coining the name of the artistic movement: Impressionism.

L: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Le bassin d'Argenteuil
1874
Estimate $15,000,000 - $25,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Madame Henriot
1874
Estimate $700,000 - $1,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1875

Monet in Argenteuil

Monet moves with his young family to the Parisian suburb of Argenteuil in 1871. He draws constant inspiration from the natural landscape there, as well as his own cultivated flower garden.

Property from a Distinguished Private Collection
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Au jardin, la famille de l’artiste
1875
Estimate $12,000,000 - $18,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1876

The Second Impressionist Exhibition

Galerie Durand-Ruel et Cie in Paris hosts the Second Impressionist Exhibition. Gustave Caillebotte exhibits his work—including Jeune homme à sa fenêtre—for the first time, alongside Degas, Morisot, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley.

Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894)
Jeune homme à sa fenêtre
1876
Estimate on request
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1877

The Third Impressionist Exhibition

Caillebotte organizes the Third Impressionist Exhibition in a large private apartment in Paris. The last gallery of the exhibition is filled with pastels and paintings by Degas, including several dedicated to the subject of ballerinas practicing and performing at the Opéra.

Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Danseuse sur une pointe
1877
Estimate $500,000 - $800,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1879

The Fourth Impressionist Exhibition

Cézanne, Morisot, Renoir and Sisley all decline to show their work at the Fourth Impressionist Exhibition; some of them submit their work to the Salon instead. Mary Cassatt befriends Edgar Degas and becomes the first American artist to exhibit her work with the Impressionists.

Property of an Important Collector
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Chanteuse de café concert
1879
Estimate $1,500,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
La route à Wargemont
1879
Estimate $3,000,000 - $5,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1880

The Fifth Impressionist Exhibition

Cézanne, Renoir, Sisley—and now Monet—all opt out of the Fifth Impressionist Exhibition. Renoir continues to submit his paintings to the Salon, while Cézanne has retreated from Paris to his native Provence. Critic Henry Harvard declares “Let us acknowledge that Impressionism is dying…the former leaders are deserting”.

Property of an Important Collector
Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
Quatre pommes
1880-1881
Estimate $2,500,000 - $3,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1881

The Sixth Impressionist Exhibition

Of the original founding members of the Impressionist group, only Degas, Morisot and Pissarro still participate in the Sixth Impressionist Exhibition. Degas’s wax sculpture of a fourteen-year-old causes controversy, while Morisot’s paintings earn the praise of Journalist Gustave Geoffroy: “No one represents Impressionism with more refined talent or with more authority than Morisot” (La Justice, 19 April 1881).

L: Berthe Morisot, La Toilette, 1875-1880. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago.
R: Edgar Degas, Petite danseuse de quatorze ans, statuette en cire, circa 1881. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Photo: National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

1882

The Seventh Impressionist Exhibition

Degas and Cassatt withdraw from the Seventh Impressionist Exhibition. Monet, Renoir and Sisley return to the group. Renoir submits Le Déjeuner des canotiers, which the poet Armand Silvestre describes as “one of the most beautiful pieces that this insurrectionist art by Independent artists has produced” (La Vie Moderne, 11 March 1882).

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Déjeuner des canotiers, 1880-1881. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. Photo: Album / Art Resource, NY.
1883

Paul Cézanne

Cézanne radicalizes the modern landscape with his series of canvases painted at l’Estaque, a small fishing village on the Mediterranean.

Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
L'Estaque aux toits rouges
1883-1885
Estimate $35,000,000 - $55,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1883

Edouard Manet

Manet dies in Paris at the age of 51. Degas posthumously praises the so-called Father of Modernism: “He was greater than we thought”

Edouard Manet, Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère, 1882. Courtauld Gallery, The Samuel Courtauld Trust, London.
1885

Edgar Degas

In the mid-1880s, Degas begins a controversial series of pastel works on paper depicting female nudes, casually reclining or emerging from the bath.

L: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Après le bain
1883
Estimate $1,500,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Femme lisant
1883-1885
Estimate $1,800,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1886

The Eighth Impressionist Exhibition

After a four-year hiatus, several of the original members of the group reunite for the Eighth (and final) Impressionist Exhibition. Georges Seurat contributes his large-scale Pointillist painting, Un Dimanche d’été à l’Ile de La Grande Jatte, signaling the triumph of Neo-Impressionism.

The National Academy of Design in New York also hosts a major exhibition dedicated to the art of Impressionists, including Caillebotte’s Jeune homme à sa fenêtre of 1876.

L: Georges Seurat, Un Dimanche d’été à l’Ile de La Grande Jatte, 1884-1886. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago.

R: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Jeune fille à la rose
1886
Estimate $3,000,000 - $5,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1888

Vincent van Gogh

The Dutch painters Vincent van Gogh arrives in Paris in 1886, where he meets the Neo-Impressionists Georges Seurat and Paul Gauguin. In 1888, Van Gogh leaves Paris for Arles in the South of France, where he will spend the final two years of his life.

Vincent van Gogh
Meules de blé
1888
Estimate $20,000,000 - $30,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1888

Claude Monet

Monet travels extensively throughout the 1880s in pursuit of diverse landscapes. In 1888, he visits to the south of France and paints La Méditerranée, capturing the luminosity of the Côte d’Azur with rich, impastoed color.

Property from the Estate of Ann Eldredge Middelthon
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
La Méditerranée
1888
Estimate $4,000,000 - $6,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1889

The Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower is unveiled for the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris.

Georges Seurat, La Tour Eiffel, circa 1889. Fine Art Museums of San Francisco.
1890

Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh’s artistic genius flourishes, culminating in a boldly colored series of figurative and landscape paintings. After suffering a nervous breakdown 1889, Van Gogh dies of a self-inflicted gunshot wound on 29 July.

L: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Cabanes de bois parmi les oliviers et cyprès
1889
Estimate on request
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Jeune homme au bleuet
1890
Estimate $5,000,000 - $7,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1892

Edgar Degas

In the final decades of his life, Degas focuses on drawing colorful pastel works on paper and modeling sculptures in wax and clay; these late, experimental works are among his greatest masterpieces.

L: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1817)
La Coiffure (La Toilette)
1892-1895
Estimate $5,000,000 - $7,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Property of an Important Collector
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Repasseuse
1898-1900
Estimate $1,000,000 - $1,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1894

Gustave Caillebotte

Caillebotte dies suddenly at age 46. His personal collection, which included dozens of Impressionist paintings by Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley, is bequeathed to the French state. Nearly half of the collection, including several masterpieces by Caillebotte, are rejected by the state and dispersed elsewhere.

Gustave Caillebotte, Rue de Paris: Temps de pluie, 1877. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago / Art Resource, NY.
1904

Paul Cézanne

The avant-garde Salon d’Automne in Paris dedicates a gallery to the work of Cézanne.

Maurice Denis, Homage à Cézanne, 1900. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Photo: Bridgeman Images.
1910

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Renoir and his family move to an estate known as Les Collettes in Cagnes-sur-Mer in 1907. The lush, floral landscape is a fertile source of inspiration for his later work.

L: Property from the Collection of William Rosenwald
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Anémones au vase de Delft
1910
Estimate $600,000-800,000
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
R: Property from a Private West Coast Collection
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Melon et tomates
1903
Estimate $600,000 - $800,000
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
1912

Claude Monet

Monet begins painting the Nymphéas series, depicting the waterlilies in his garden at Giverny, in 1897. He returns to the subject again in 1903, it preoccupies him until his death in 1926.

L: Jacques-Ernest Bulloz, Claude Monet in front of his water lily pond in Giverny, 1905.
R: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Nymphéas (fragment)
1912
Estimate $700,000 - $1,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1856

James McNeill Whistler

The American painter James McNeill Whistler arrives in Paris in 1856 and establishes connections with French modern artists working in Paris, including Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir. In 1874, Degas would invite Whistler to join a group of avant-garde painters later known as the Impressionists, but Whistler decided to exhibit his work independently.

Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
JAMES MCNEILL WHISTLER (1834-1903)
Whistler Smoking
1856-1860
Estimate $400,000 - $600,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1862

The Origins of Impressionism

Claude Monet, Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Frédéric Bazille meet in Paris in the early 1860s. These young artists will go on to become known as Impressionists—painters dedicated to capturing the spectacles of modern life, as well as the atmospheric effects of color and light on canvas.

L: Pierre-Auguste Renoir, La Grenouillère, 1869. Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
R: Claude Monet, La Grenouillère, 1869. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
1863

Edouard Manet

Edouard Manet, friend to Impressionist Edgar Degas and future brother-in-law of Berthe Morisot, submits his radically modern painting Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe to the annual Paris Salon; his work is rejected and exhibited instead at the Salon des Refusés. Despite this embarrassment, Manet will continue to submit his work to the Salon, declining invitations to join the Impressionist exhibition

Edouard Manet, Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe, 1862-1863. Musée d’Orsay, Paris.
1870

The Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War begins, leading to the collapse of the Second Empire and the rise of the Third Republic in France. Monet and Pissarro flee to England. The other future founding members of Impressionism— Degas, Morisot, Camille Pissarro, Renoir, and Sisley—remain in Paris. Bazille, who dreamed of organizing an independent exhibition, is killed in battle.

L: Frédéric Bazille, Studio in Rue de La Condamine, 1870. Musée d’Orsay, Paris. Bridgeman Images.
R: Ruins from the Franco-Prussian War, 1871. Photo: © Albert Harlingue / Roger-Viollet.
1872

Painting en plein air

In the years that follow the Franco-Prussian war, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley are increasingly drawn to painting in nature, frequently setting up their easels outdoors in order to capture their spontaneous impressions of the landscape in Paris and beyond. The artists also experiment with a new style of painting: lighter, brighter colors applied with looser brushstrokes.

L:Alfred Sisley (1839-1899)
La Seine à Argenteuil
1872
Estimate $2,000,000 - $3,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Camille Pissarro (1830-1903)
La route de Rouen, les hauteurs de l'Hautil, Pontoise
1872
Estimate $600,000 - $900,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1872

Paul Durand-Ruel

Paul Durand-Ruel, the French art dealer and major champion of the Impressionists, exhibits the work of Manet, Monet and others at his gallery in London.

Paul Durand-Ruel, 1910, Photo: Sheldon Marshall.
1874

Impressionism is born

The First Impressionist Exhibition is staged at the Paris studio of the photographer Nadar. There, Monet exhibits his iconic landscape painting Impression, soleil levant. Art critic Louis Leroy dismisses Monet’s work as a mere impression, coining the name of the artistic movement: Impressionism.

L: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Le bassin d'Argenteuil
1874
Estimate $15,000,000 - $25,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Madame Henriot
1874
Estimate $700,000 - $1,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1875

Monet in Argenteuil

Monet moves with his young family to the Parisian suburb of Argenteuil in 1871. He draws constant inspiration from the natural landscape there, as well as his own cultivated flower garden.

Property from a Distinguished Private Collection
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Au jardin, la famille de l’artiste
1875
Estimate $12,000,000 - $18,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1876

The Second Impressionist Exhibition

Galerie Durand-Ruel et Cie in Paris hosts the Second Impressionist Exhibition. Gustave Caillebotte exhibits his work—including Jeune homme à sa fenêtre—for the first time, alongside Degas, Morisot, Monet, Renoir, Pissarro and Sisley.

Gustave Caillebotte (1848-1894)
Jeune homme à sa fenêtre
1876
Estimate on request
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1877

The Third Impressionist Exhibition

Caillebotte organizes the Third Impressionist Exhibition in a large private apartment in Paris. The last gallery of the exhibition is filled with pastels and paintings by Degas, including several dedicated to the subject of ballerinas practicing and performing at the Opéra.

Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Danseuse sur une pointe
1877
Estimate $500,000 - $800,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1879

The Fourth Impressionist Exhibition

Cézanne, Morisot, Renoir and Sisley all decline to show their work at the Fourth Impressionist Exhibition; some of them submit their work to the Salon instead. Mary Cassatt befriends Edgar Degas and becomes the first American artist to exhibit her work with the Impressionists.

Property of an Important Collector
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Chanteuse de café concert
1879
Estimate $1,500,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
La route à Wargemont
1879
Estimate $3,000,000 - $5,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1880

The Fifth Impressionist Exhibition

Cézanne, Renoir, Sisley—and now Monet—all opt out of the Fifth Impressionist Exhibition. Renoir continues to submit his paintings to the Salon, while Cézanne has retreated from Paris to his native Provence. Critic Henry Harvard declares “Let us acknowledge that Impressionism is dying…the former leaders are deserting”.

Property of an Important Collector
Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
Quatre pommes
1880-1881
Estimate $2,500,000 - $3,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1881

The Sixth Impressionist Exhibition

Of the original founding members of the Impressionist group, only Degas, Morisot and Pissarro still participate in the Sixth Impressionist Exhibition. Degas’s wax sculpture of a fourteen-year-old causes controversy, while Morisot’s paintings earn the praise of Journalist Gustave Geoffroy: “No one represents Impressionism with more refined talent or with more authority than Morisot” (La Justice, 19 April 1881).

L: Berthe Morisot, La Toilette, 1875-1880. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago.
R: Edgar Degas, Petite danseuse de quatorze ans, statuette en cire, circa 1881. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Photo: National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

1882

The Seventh Impressionist Exhibition

Degas and Cassatt withdraw from the Seventh Impressionist Exhibition. Monet, Renoir and Sisley return to the group. Renoir submits Le Déjeuner des canotiers, which the poet Armand Silvestre describes as “one of the most beautiful pieces that this insurrectionist art by Independent artists has produced” (La Vie Moderne, 11 March 1882).

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Le Déjeuner des canotiers, 1880-1881. The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. Photo: Album / Art Resource, NY.
1883

Paul Cézanne

Cézanne radicalizes the modern landscape with his series of canvases painted at l’Estaque, a small fishing village on the Mediterranean.

Paul Cézanne (1839-1906)
L'Estaque aux toits rouges
1883-1885
Estimate $35,000,000 - $55,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1883

Edouard Manet

Manet dies in Paris at the age of 51. Degas posthumously praises the so-called Father of Modernism: “He was greater than we thought”

Edouard Manet, Un Bar aux Folies-Bergère, 1882. Courtauld Gallery, The Samuel Courtauld Trust, London.
1885

Edgar Degas

In the mid-1880s, Degas begins a controversial series of pastel works on paper depicting female nudes, casually reclining or emerging from the bath.

L: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Après le bain
1883
Estimate $1,500,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Femme lisant
1883-1885
Estimate $1,800,000 - $2,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1886

The Eighth Impressionist Exhibition

After a four-year hiatus, several of the original members of the group reunite for the Eighth (and final) Impressionist Exhibition. Georges Seurat contributes his large-scale Pointillist painting, Un Dimanche d’été à l’Ile de La Grande Jatte, signaling the triumph of Neo-Impressionism.

The National Academy of Design in New York also hosts a major exhibition dedicated to the art of Impressionists, including Caillebotte’s Jeune homme à sa fenêtre of 1876.

L: Georges Seurat, Un Dimanche d’été à l’Ile de La Grande Jatte, 1884-1886. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago.

R: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Jeune fille à la rose
1886
Estimate $3,000,000 - $5,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1888

Vincent van Gogh

The Dutch painters Vincent van Gogh arrives in Paris in 1886, where he meets the Neo-Impressionists Georges Seurat and Paul Gauguin. In 1888, Van Gogh leaves Paris for Arles in the South of France, where he will spend the final two years of his life.

Vincent van Gogh
Meules de blé
1888
Estimate $20,000,000 - $30,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1888

Claude Monet

Monet travels extensively throughout the 1880s in pursuit of diverse landscapes. In 1888, he visits to the south of France and paints La Méditerranée, capturing the luminosity of the Côte d’Azur with rich, impastoed color.

Property from the Estate of Ann Eldredge Middelthon
Claude Monet (1840-1926)
La Méditerranée
1888
Estimate $4,000,000 - $6,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1889

The Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower is unveiled for the 1889 Exposition Universelle in Paris.

Georges Seurat, La Tour Eiffel, circa 1889. Fine Art Museums of San Francisco.
1890

Vincent van Gogh

Van Gogh’s artistic genius flourishes, culminating in a boldly colored series of figurative and landscape paintings. After suffering a nervous breakdown 1889, Van Gogh dies of a self-inflicted gunshot wound on 29 July.

L: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Cabanes de bois parmi les oliviers et cyprès
1889
Estimate on request
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890)
Jeune homme au bleuet
1890
Estimate $5,000,000 - $7,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1892

Edgar Degas

In the final decades of his life, Degas focuses on drawing colorful pastel works on paper and modeling sculptures in wax and clay; these late, experimental works are among his greatest masterpieces.

L: Property from the Collection of Elene Canrobert Isles de Saint Phalle
Edgar Degas (1834-1817)
La Coiffure (La Toilette)
1892-1895
Estimate $5,000,000 - $7,000,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
R: Property of an Important Collector
Edgar Degas (1834-1917)
Repasseuse
1898-1900
Estimate $1,000,000 - $1,500,000
20th Century Evening Sale
11 November, New York
1894

Gustave Caillebotte

Caillebotte dies suddenly at age 46. His personal collection, which included dozens of Impressionist paintings by Cézanne, Degas, Manet, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley, is bequeathed to the French state. Nearly half of the collection, including several masterpieces by Caillebotte, are rejected by the state and dispersed elsewhere.

Gustave Caillebotte, Rue de Paris: Temps de pluie, 1877. The Art Institute of Chicago. Photo: The Art Institute of Chicago / Art Resource, NY.
1904

Paul Cézanne

The avant-garde Salon d’Automne in Paris dedicates a gallery to the work of Cézanne.

Maurice Denis, Homage à Cézanne, 1900. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Photo: Bridgeman Images.
1910

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Renoir and his family move to an estate known as Les Collettes in Cagnes-sur-Mer in 1907. The lush, floral landscape is a fertile source of inspiration for his later work.

L: Property from the Collection of William Rosenwald
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Anémones au vase de Delft
1910
Estimate $600,000-800,000
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
R: Property from a Private West Coast Collection
Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919)
Melon et tomates
1903
Estimate $600,000 - $800,000
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
Impressionist and Modern Art Day Sale
13 November, New York
1912

Claude Monet

Monet begins painting the Nymphéas series, depicting the waterlilies in his garden at Giverny, in 1897. He returns to the subject again in 1903, it preoccupies him until his death in 1926.

L: Jacques-Ernest Bulloz, Claude Monet in front of his water lily pond in Giverny, 1905.
R: Claude Monet (1840-1926)
Nymphéas (fragment)
1912
Estimate $700,000 - $1,000,000
The Cox Collection: The Story of Impressionism, Evening Sale
11 November, New York